Trees

Analysis

Source

A species-rich agroforestry system based on Ernst Goetsch’s syntropic agriculture approach (mutually beneficial interactions between the shrub, bush and vegetable strips) would be suitable for soil fertility improvement and diverse food crop production under temperate climate. The strategy is to gradually build up food crop cultivation under organic low-input agricultural practices while simultaneously enhancing the biophysical growth conditions guided by natural succession.

Cossel et al. (2020, p.1)

Tree cover –the potential sink of evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and isoprene emissions- in intensely farmed regions in Asia, Australia and South America is significantly underestimated in the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosol from Nature (MEGAN) and absent in Noah land-surface module of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) Model. This study shows that expanding agroforestry practices to 50% of the cropland area could result in up to 40% yield gain regionally. Implementing such strategies globally could increase crop production and sequester 0.3–30 GtC per year.

Mishra et al. (2021, p.1)

The restoration of trees remains among the most effective strategies for climate change mitigation More than 50% of the tree restoration potential can be found in only six countries (in million hectares: Russia,+151; United States,+103; Canada, +78.4; Australia, +58; Brazil, +49.7; and China, +40.2).

Bastin et al. (2019, p. 1)

Increasing C belowground inputs to soil can be achieved through agroforestry

Cardinael et al. (2017)

Transition from agriculture to agroforestry significantly increased SOC stock of 26, 40, and 34% at 0–15, 0–30, and 0–100 cm respectively. The conversion from pasture/grassland to agroforestry produced significant SOC stock increases at 0–30 cm (10%).

De Stefano & Jacobson (2018)

Expansion of bioenergy in order to meet the 1.5C limit could cause net losses in carbon from the land surface. Instead, we find that protecting and expanding forests could be more effective options for meeting the Paris Agreement.

Harper et al. (2018)

The importance of the association of species of legumes with grasses and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala L., (Lam.) de Wit) is an environmentally friendly proposal of positive interactions to improve soil fertility and animal productivity. Overall, improving forage quality and N efficiency of dietary nutrients is an effective way of decreasing GHG. Considerable evidence that Silvopastoral systems can increase production efficiency, increase carbon sequestration and improve N cycling on land used for livestock production.

Sarabia et al. (2020)

Human society appropriates 20% (13 petagrams of carbon per year) of global potential net primary production by the transformation of natural ecosystems into cropland and human‐made pastures. International trade accounts for 23% of global NPPpot footprint of agriculture. While the two and half billion people living in China and India (the two countries with lowest NPPpot agricultural footprint per capita) appropriate about 16% of the global NPPpot agricultural footprint of cropland and human‐made pastures, the same share is appropriated by only 360 million people living in countries with the highest per capita footprint.

Weinzettel et al. (2019)

We find significant soil pH neutralization by afforestation—afforestation lowers pH in relatively alkaline soil but raises pH in relatively acid soil. The soil pH thresholds (TpH), the point when afforestation changes from increasing to decreasing soil pH, are species-specific, ranging from 5.5 (Pinus koraiensis) to 7.3 (Populus spp.) with a mean of 6.3. These findings indicate that afforestation can modify soil pH if tree species and initial pH are properly matched, which may potentially improve soil fertility and promote ecosystem productivity.

Hong et al. (2018)

The relationship between carbon stocks and biodiversity was positive in both regions and all subclimates, being stronger where climate is a limiting factor for forest growth. The spatial overlap between hotspots of carbon and biodiversity provides an excellent opportunity for landscape planning to maintain carbon stocks and conserve biodiversity. The variables positively affecting carbon and biodiversity were also driving the hotspots of both carbon and biodiversity, emphasizing the viability of “win‐win” solutions.

Lecina-Dieaz et al. (2018)

(Title: Multi-Party Agroforestry: Emergent Approaches to Trees and Tenure on Farms in the Midwest USA)

Keeley et al. (2019)

We sowed perennial flower strips in organic apple orchards all over Europe. The perennial flower strips boosted the natural enemies on apple trees. Flower strips also enhanced natural enemies specifically in D. plantaginea colonies. This increase led to the control of key apple pests and a reduction in fruit damage.

Cahenzli et al. (2019)

Agroecological management improves ecosystem services in almond orchards within one year

De Leijster et al. (2019)

Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices. Current efforts to develop a regenerative agriculture certification offer an opportunity to consider agroforestry’s role in furthering regenerative goals. To understand this opportunity, we first examine how agroforestry practices can advance regenerative agriculture’s five core environmental concerns: soil fertility and health, water quality, biodiversity, ecosystem health, and carbon sequestration. Next, we review a subset of certification programs, standards, guidelines, and associated scientific literature to understand existing efforts to standardize agroforestry. We determine that development of an agroforestry standard alongside current efforts to certify regenerative agriculture offers an opportunity to leverage common goals and strengths of each. Additionally, we determine that there is a lack of standards with measurable criteria available for agroforestry, particularly in temperate locations. Lastly, we propose a framework and general, measurable criteria for an agroforestry standard that could potentially be implemented as a standalone standard or built into existing agriculture, forestry, or resource conservation certification programs.

Elevitch et al. (2018)